Editorischer Kommentar

Im März 1825 hielt sich der schottische Botaniker George Arnott Walker-Arnott in Paris auf. Dort fertigte er auf Bitten Humboldts diese Liste zur Geographie der Moose an. Die am oberen Rand der ersten Seite eingetragene Sigle B verweist auf die Nummer 10 der von Karl Sigismund Kunth 1825 angelegten Ideensammlung zur Neuausgabe der Geographie der Pflanzen („Verbreitung der Moose“). Bereits 1822 hatte Walker-Arnott für Humboldt eine Auflistung von Moosen angefertigt, die sowohl in der nördlichen Hemisphäre als auch in den Tropen vorkommen. Sie trägt in der Kunth'schen Materialsammlung die Sigle L. Auf die erste Seite des Dokuments montierte Humboldt ein Blatt mit Exzerpten aus Thomas Edward Bowdichs 1825 „Excursions in Madeira and Porto Santo“ (Bowdich 1825). Die auf diesem Blatt angegebene Sigle C korrespondiert ebenfalls mit Nummer 10 der Kunth'schen Materialsammlung.

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Anmerkung Carl Sigismund Kunth (am oberen Rand) B.

Andreaea .

Aufgeklebte Notiz Carl Sigismund Kunth (am linken Rand) | 1r C.  Vgl. Thomas Edward Bowdichs Bericht über seine Exkursion nach São Vicente während seines Aufenthaltes auf Madeira (Bowdich 1825, 49–50): Here I first saw the beautiful fern asplenium palmatum. The filices form by far the most interesting family in Madeira, verifying Baron de Humboldt’s remark, that their maximum may be found in the mountainous parts of small islands […], yet I was disappointed at not finding the dicksonia mentioned by the above author […].

Filices abondent dans les îles. Dicksonia ou arborescent ferns pas trouvé à Madère
Bowdich Travels page 49. Vermilia bicarinata et Galeoloria elongata de Nouvelle Hollande trouvé à Madère Bowdich page 63! Géographie des plantes de Madère Bowdich page 101, 152, 248 | 1v [...]

This genus is, as far as I have been enabled to determine, confined wholly to Europe: it occurs in mountainous districts usually at very considerable elevations. There are only four species; those which were known to Linné were confounded by him with Jungermannia.


I consider that there are only four species of this genus two of which at least are very widely distributed: Sphagnum latifolium occurs in marshes throughout all Europe. I possess it also from North america, where I believe it is as abundant as in Europe: Michaux has called it Sphagnum vulgare . It is described by Bridel from the straits of Magellan under the name of Sphagnum magellanicum . In the Isles of Bourbon, France, and New Holland, (and I believe also in East India) it has also been found. Sphagnum acutifolium seems nearly as widely distributed, but I do not recollect of having observed Sphagnum squarrosum , or Sphagnum cuspidatium as occuring out of Europe. Some botanists, and I think with justice, consider that there is only one species of this genus.


This genus may be considered as nearly European, & the species are nearly confinded, as far as has been hitherto observed to the middle districts of Europe. To the north the species become few, and finally disappear in the Arctic circle: About the middle & South of England, Germany, & France, they are found in considerable numbers, but, whether through the negligence of botanists I know not, they are scarcely at all found farther south. A few of the European species have been found in North america in Pennsylvania , among these are Phascum subulatum, Phascum crispum, Phascum patens, Phascum cuspidatum, Phascum crassinervium, and perhaps a few others: of these Phascum subulatum has I believe also been found in New Holland. Phascum coherens and Phascum flexuosum are perhaps the only two confined exclusively to North America (Pennsylvania ). Phascum alternifolium occurs in Great Britain, in Germany, and, if I mistake not at the Cape of Good Hope and (if Bridel’s Pleuridium be, as I suppose, the | 2v2 same plant), also in the Isle of France. Phascum nervosum and Phascum splachnoideum have been found, & are peculiar to the Cape of Good Hope.

Thus it may be said that this genus is confined entirely to temperate regions: moreover it is seldom (never?) found at any great elevation, seldom at more than  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 100 Toise entsprechen 194,84 m100 or  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 150 Toise entsprechen 292,26 m150 hexapodes – all occur on the ground.

Bruchia .

This which consists of only one species differs from the last genus, & is intermediate between it & the following in all its characters: It has the general appearance of the last, but approaches more closely the characters of the following: it occurs at a considerable elevation on the mountains of the Vosges.

Voitia .

Of the two species, the one, Voitia nivalis occurs at a great altitude on the Carinthian mountains, at the limits of perpetual snow „in stercore vaccino“. The other was first discovered in Melville Island, but has since been found on the coasts of Hudsons bay, & at the mouth of the coppermine river.

Gymnostomum .

This numerous genus, consisting of upwards of 30 species, is very widely distributed: One section (3 species) is found entirely at the cape, and has been constituted a separate genus by both Brown, and Schwägrichen under the name of Glyphocarpa. Perhaps a Bartramia which has been found elsewhere in Africa, might be added. Of the other or real Gymnostoma, there are two sections, of which the one is chiefly alpine, the other is not confined to any particular situation. Of the first of these, nearly all are European: one however belongs to arctic america, and two of the others Gymnostomum xanthocarpum and Gymnostomum nepalense Nobis to Nepal, one of the European species (Gymnostomum aestivum) was found by Schmidt on Teneriffe, all grow on rock, with the exception of Gymnostomum viridissimum, a British species, which is more commonly found on the southern exposure of trees – Of the other section there are about 15 or 16 found in Europe. Of these one, Gymnostomum Griffithianum, is peculiar to the mountains of Wales, England, & Scotland, the others are chiefly found in the low countries. Gymnostomum fasciculare has been found through the whole world: it may be traced in Hindostan under the name of Gymnostomum Rottleri, and perhaps in Japan under that of Gymnostomum japonicum; Gymnostomum pyriforme is found as commonly in the United States as in Europe, & I have obser | 4r3ved it in Mister Burchell’s herbarium from the Cape of Good Hope. Gymnostomum truncatulum is diffused widely through Europe and Asia. I do not think that there is any species peculiar to North america. But in South america we have Gymnostomum julaceum (Quito. altitudine  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 2.300 Toise entsprechen 4,48 km2300 hexapodum)– Gymnostomum Bonplandii (New Granada altitudine  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 1.300 Toise entsprechen 2,53 km1300 hexapodum), Gymnostomum jamesoni (Rio janeiro), and another species from Mendoza (Chili). – One species has been found on Mount atlas in africa, another in Madeira – and another, Gymnostomum involutum in Nepal which also occurs in Java under the name of Gymnostomum javanicum. Upon the whole this genus may be considered as belonging to the temperate regions.

Schistostega .

The only gererally acknowledged plant of this genus is Schistostega pennata & has hitherto been found only in the middle of Europe, as Germany & the South of England. A plant however which perhaps belongs to the genus, the Drepanophyllum fulvum of Richard & Hooker, but very little understood, has been found in the woodsof Cayenne, Isle de Bourbon, & Hispaniola.

Anictangium .

Anictangium pulvinatum, Anictangium subsessile, and Anictangium caespiticium , are peculiar to the middle of Europe, & may be considered as subalpine species. Anictangium ciliatum occurs every where in the temperate regions.In Europe it is extremely common: in North america particularly in the United states it is equally so, though of a darker green colour, and has been by some erroneously thought distinct under the name of Hedwigia integrifolia & Anictangium filiforme: Brown found it in New-Holland, & it is plentiful in Nepal. Anictangium torquatum is peculiar to South america (Banks of the Amazons in New Granada – and in Brazil) – Anictangium repens has only been found on the West coast of New Holland.


One species is confined to South of Europe, Hedwigia aquatica; the only other two species were brought by Messieurs Humboldt and Bonpland, of these Hedwigia secunda has only hitherto been found in Mexico, near Tolucca at an altitude of  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 1.300 Toise entsprechen 2,53 km1300 hexapodes the other Hedwigia Humboldtii, found on Quindíu at an altitude of 1.600, has been also found at no great distance from the Cape of Good Hope; and if (as I suspect) Hypnum nigricaule and | 4v4 Hedwigia taxiforme be the same as this, I may add to these localities the isle of Gaudeloupe, & the South sea islands.

Diphyscium & Buxbaumia.

Both these genera are common to the middle of Europe & North america. They usually occur in Subalpine districts, id est about  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 100 Toise entsprechen 194,84 m100, or  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 150 Toise entsprechen 292,26 m150 hexapodes above the sea.


All the species may be considered as more or less alpine. They are most numerous in the middle and northern parts of Europe and North america. Splachnum ampullaceum, Splachnum sphaericum, & Splachnum tenue are usually met with south of the arctic circle & are probably confinded to Europe. Splachnum angustatum is more common in Europe towards the arctic circle but soon again disappears, it occurs in the northern parts of the United states. Splachnum vasculosum has a wide range: it occurs in both continents, even to Melville island. Splachnum urceolatum is I believe wholly European, and is most frequent in Lapland. Splachnum mnioides is common in the mountains of Europe, and if Splachnum arcticum, Splachnum propinquum, & Splachnum exsertum of Brown be the same, it also occurs in the arctic regions of North america: Splachnum wormskioldii was first found in Greenland, but has since been found, growing to a size 10, or 12 times greater in all arctic america that the several English expeditions have reached to: Splachnum adamsonianum has been found in Kamtschatka, & arctic america (under the name of Splachnum paradoxum Brown): Splachnum luteum and Splachnum rubrum are found within the arctic circle of Europe, but the former occurs also within the same latitudes in North America. Lastly Splachnum longicollum, if really different from Splachnum tenue, has only been found on the North West Coast of North america. Splachnum magellanicum, at the Straits of Magellan, & Splachnum octoblepharum in New Holland.


Dissodon splachnoides, Dissodon Hornschuchii, and Dissodon Froelichianum are European, and are found at very great elevations in the Middle and Northern parts. Dissodon scabrisetum (Splachnum Scabrisetum. Humboldt ) has been only procured by Messieurs Humboldt & Bonpland in South america (Jaén de Bracamoros. altitude  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 1.100 Toise entsprechen 2,14 km1100 hexapodes)

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has only been found in the middle of Europe, at very great elevations.


pellucida is found in Europe & the united states , at small elevations. There are other three species but these are confined wholly to the middle parts of Europe.

Octoblepharum .

Common in the West India islands, as Jamaica, Saint Vincents &c, in Africa as at Ouare, in Cayenne, Brazil , isle de Bourbon, & Isle de France, Madagascar, Nepal and other parts in the East indies.

Octodon .

First found in the isle de Bourbon, but now in the greatest profusion in Nepal.

Calymperes .

Not one species is European: Indeed it may be called a tropical genus. Calymperes lonchophyllum is found in Cayenne, Brazil &c. Calymperes Palisoti at Ouare(?) in africa, in the isles of Granada, Saint Thomas, Saint Vincents; Brazil, Nepal, Prince of Wales Island, and the Moluccas (for I consider Calymperes moluccensis as the same species). Calymperes Berterii is found in Hispaniola, Calymperes Swartzii (Eucalypta parasitica Swartz ) in the West IndiesCalymperes Gardneri, & Calymperes Taylori in Nepal – Three or four other species are found in the isle of Saint Vincent, & one or two more in the Moluccas. – All of them seem to grow on trees.


Zygodon conoideum is dispersed throughout Europe. Zygodon menziesii in New Zealand, New Holland, &c. and Zygodon obtusifolium in Nepal. All I believe on the trunks of trees.


This genus is too extensive to examine the species separately: it is sufficent to say that it is very generally distributed. The species occurring in Europe & North america have usually a very different appearence from those to the South, so much so as to induce some muscologists to retain the former only in this genus; & they have accordingly constituted two new genera for the remainder. But some species as Orthotrichum diaphanum is found not only in Europe, but at Mendoça (in Chili), | 5v6others from the tropics, as Orthotrichum plicatum, there are only about 10 or 12 peculiar to Europe, 4 or 5 to North america (betwixt the united states & the arctic regions), at least 5 common to Europe & North america, one to Europe & South america, the remainder, about 40 in number, seem pretty much confined to their respective countries, which may be said to be chiefly tropical; a few only as Otaheita, Nepal, New Zealand, Van Diemens-land, Cape of Good Hope being out of that range, & not many species are hitherto discovered in these.


Only one species which is confined to the sea coasts of England & Ireland.


Of this genus, containing about 27 or 28 species, nearly 20 are confined to Europe, scarcely more than two to North america (the united states), one, Grimmia apocarpa with its varieties & perhaps Grimmia maritima seems common to both. Grimmia fontinaloides, Grimmia longisotris, and Grimmia fuscolutea, belong to South america; and Grimmia campestris to the Cape of Good hope: The European species are principally alpine, but some as Grimmia maritima are found at the level of the sea, others as Grimmia apacarpa occur in all situations, which from the slight variations that in consequence take place on the appearance of the plant, has received six or eight different names. It is singular that Grimmia pulvinata, β. Grimmia africana, brought by Thunberg from the Cape of Good hope, & which perhaps with justice should be held as a distinct species, or more probably the same with Grimmia fuscolutea from South America, has been said to have been found in Swisserland. As however I have not yet seen either, I cannot give my opinion decidedly. Of the South american ones Grimmia fontinaloides is analogous to our European Grimmia apocarpa varietas rivularisGrimmia longirostris to the European Grimmia ovata – and lastly Grimmia fuscolutea to the Grimmia pulvinata. Of the South african species, Grimmia campestris resembles Grimmia leucophaea so closely as with difficulty to be separated, and Grimmia africana, supposing it distinct, is very closely allied to Grimmia pulvinata. Thus an opinion that there are only three species of this genus would gain some confirmation, & that these species were distributed all over the globe: the three species would be 1. with immersed setae, 2. with exserted straight setae, & 3. with excerted incurved setae.

| 6rTrichostomum.

Of the Genuine Trichostoma, the greater part are European and are most plentiful in the mountainous, or subalpine disstricts: a few are found in North america, but there are none peculiar to it, all of them likewise occurring in Europe: For Trichostomum Canadense is identical with Trichostomum canescens. & Trichostomum obtusifolium is noways different from Trichostomum aciculare. Trichostomum lanuginosum is found everywhere – in Chili, Mexico, &c. Of the true Trichostoma one or two species occur in Nepal. There is also a section of spurious ones (with long vaginating perichaetia that when better understood may be probably joined to a different genus), Trichostomum perichaetiale, & Trichostomum cylindricum both in Hookers Musci Exotici that come the one from [...] & the other from [...] . Anmerkung des Autors (am unteren Rand) One species Trichostomum polyphyllum seems very widely distributed; it has been found in South America by M M. Humboldt & Bonpland, at at the cape of Good Hope by Mister Burchell.


this is entirely a European genus.


As far as I recollect the whole are European, there are only four species, they are all alpine except the Eucalypta vulgaris.


I do not know that this genus occurs in South america, but in Europe, North America, West Indies, Cape of Good Hope, Madagascar, the Moluccas, & various of the South Sea Islands, it has bee found. Nearly all however are European: Two or three species as Weissia controversa and Weissia verticillata are common to Europe & North America. The last has I understand been also found in the Canary Isles. Weissia curvirostra extends from the West of Europe to Asia minor. Some of the species are alpine, but others are by no means so.


I consider that there is but one species of this genus: two of the varieties occur in Europe, a third in the united states, and the fourth in the island of Tristan d’Acunha, but there are intermediate varieties from the same places. The European species occur as far South as the Tyrolese Alps, & extend to Seeland.


Of one section (Fissidens Hedwig ), Dicranum bryoides is found everywhere. In Europe one finds it extremely common, as well as its varieties. I have seen it from North america (united States), from South america (Rio janeeroMendoça &c), West india Islands, the Cape, East India, & various of the South Sea islands, nor can I find dif | 6v8ferences sufficient to characterise a variety: it was the sight of this very plant in the sandy deserts of Africa, that inspired the traveller Mungo Park, when fatigued & overpowered with thirst as he mentions in his travels, to push forward & endeavour to procure some refreshment. – Another species of this section Dicranum taxifolium has been traced in Nepal. If Dicranum (Fissidens) Semicompletum, and Skitophyllum fontanum, or Fontinalis juliana be, as I suppose, identical it has been found both in Europe & in Patagonia , isle of Providence, & perhaps the isles of Bourbon. – Of another tribe of Dicrana, those with no nerves to the leaf, & resembling Sphagnum in texture, one Dicranum glaucum has been met with in nearly all parts of the world: it occurs however more rarely within the tropics and Dicranum megalophyllum (Sphagnum javense of Bridel ) takes its place. In new Holland, a third species of this tribe appears to have been sent to Dillenius, but perhaps his figure is only a bad representation of a state of Dicranum glaucum which does occur there. – The remainder of the Dicrana are nearly 40 in number, of which scarcely more than 13 are confined to Europe, not above one or two to North america; South america posseses the Dicranum vaginatum, Dicranum densum, and Dicranum longisetum, and a few also are peculiar to Nepal. But about 11 or 12, are common both to Europe & North america, two or three to Europe & Nepal, about as many to Europe and New Holland; Some species, which are met with in Jamaica & the neighbouring islands, as Dicranum calycinum, occur also in the isles of Bourbon. Dicranum crispum (an European species) is said by Thumbergto grow at the cape, but I suspect his plant to be Dicranum flexifolium, a species peculiar to that country. The most widely diffused species of the whole genus is Dicranum scoparium, which has been found in almost every country in the world. And another species Dicranum Harkii is I suspect nearly as common, though at present retaining different names.

Thesanomitrion .

This genus may be reckoned alpine, but with the exception of Thesanomitrion flexuosum, which occurs most commonly in Europe, may be considered belonging to the tropics. – Thesanomitrion concolor (Dicranum concolor Hooker ) is only found in New Granada, a small variety, ? perhaps Thesanomitrion capillaceum, not described in the Synopsis to the „Nova Genera &c.“, seems to be found in Saint Helena, Ile of Bourbon, & the moluccas. Thesanomitrion introflexum is perhaps the | 7r9 most widely diffused, as it is found in almost every island within the tropics.

Didymodon .

Of this genus, the most generally diffused is Didymodon purpureum: it is not only common in Europe & North america, but extends to the Canary isles, & the Cape of Good hope, as far as I recollect it is also a common species in New Holland. – Didymodon pallidum (Trichostomum pallidum Schwägrichen ) a plant perhaps nowhere abundant, is nevertheless widely diffused. Europe, North America, Jamaica, Patagonia, New Holland &c all posess it. Didymodon trifarium & Didymodon heteromallus has been found both in Europe & North america & perhaps a few others.

Tortula .

A considerable number are common both to Europe & North america. A variety? of Tortula inclinata (a Swiss plant) has been at the cape of good hope. Tortula membranifolia Hooker first detected in Teneriffe, has since been observed in the Pyrenées, in Swisserland, and even in the environs of Paris! – Tortula muralis, occurs both in Europe & South america ( at Mendoça), Tortula ruralis occurs every where. A few species are peculiar to North america, as Tortula caespitosa, Tortula humilis, Tortula leucostoma; some are peculiar to Nepal, as Tortula indica, Tortula flavescens, Tortula angustifolia; others are peculiar to New Holland, others to the cape, others to the West Indies. Tortula cirrhata (Trichostomum barbula Schwägrichen ) found in Portugal, occurs also in Teneriffe, & a larger variety has been sent me from Rio Janeiro. Anmerkung des Autors (innerhalb der Zeile) –{Nota Bene Tortula stellata of Jamaica, said by Dickson to grow in Scotland is probably an error, there is reason to fear that he had confused his Scottish & Jamaica plants together.


There are only two species; the one is confined to the northern parts of Europe; as Scotland, Lapland &c, the other to the Straits of Magellan.


So many disputes are at present as to what are species & what are not so, in this genus, that it is difficult to say which are peculiar to Europe & I rather think however that Bartramia Halleriana, Bartramia Ithyphylla, & Bartramia arcuata are the only three that are not found elsewhere. Bartramia pomiformis , Bartramia gracilis, & Bartramia fontana, are also extremely common in North america. In which country (the North West Coast), Bartramia menziesii has only been found. Bartramia longifolia is peculiar to South america (vide.  Kunth 1822–1825, I, 55.

Humboldt & Bonpland synopsis
), but Bartramia patens has also been found there: This was found | 7v10 by  Kunth 1822–1825, I, 55.

Messieurs Humboldt & Bonpland
, it also occurs at the Straits of Magellan, and in isle of Bourbon? – another , Bartramia stricta is said to be found at the Straits of Magellan, but is probably regular to the coast of Barbary. Bartramia fontana is found every where: Europe, North america, East & West indies, NewHolland, Otaheita, Cape of Good Hope, &c., Bartamia tomentosa from Jamaica, is very closely allied to, but must not be confounded with Bartramia arcuata of Europe.

Funaria .

Some authors begin to suspect that all the species are not different from each other: but be that as it may, the common Funaria hygrometrica of Europe is as common in North america. It is found also, (growing with a species Funaria calvescens