Editorischer Kommentar

Im März 1825 hielt sich der schottische Botaniker George Arnott Walker-Arnott in Paris auf. Dort fertigte er auf Bitten Humboldts diese Liste zur Geographie der Moose an. Die am oberen Rand der ersten Seite eingetragene Sigle B verweist auf die Nummer 10 der von Karl Sigismund Kunth 1825 angelegten Ideensammlung zur Neuausgabe der Geographie der Pflanzen („Verbreitung der Moose“). Bereits 1822 hatte Walker-Arnott für Humboldt eine Auflistung von Moosen angefertigt, die sowohl in der nördlichen Hemisphäre als auch in den Tropen vorkommen. Sie trägt in der Kunth'schen Materialsammlung die Sigle L. Auf die erste Seite des Dokuments montierte Humboldt ein Blatt mit Exzerpten aus Thomas Edward Bowdichs 1825 „Excursions in Madeira and Porto Santo“ (Bowdich 1825). Die auf diesem Blatt angegebene Sigle C korrespondiert ebenfalls mit Nummer 10 der Kunth'schen Materialsammlung.

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Anmerkung Carl Sigismund Kunth (am oberen Rand)B.

Andreea [sic].

Aufgeklebte Notiz Carl Sigismund Kunth (am linken Rand) | 1r C.  Vgl. Thomas Edward Bowdichs Bericht über seine Exkursion nach São Vicente während seines Aufenthaltes auf Madeira (Bowdich 1825, 49–50): Here I first saw the beautiful fern asplenium palmatum. The filices form by far the most interesting family in Madeira, verifying Baron de Humboldt’s remark, that their maximum may be found in the mountainous parts of small islands […], yet I was disappointed at not finding the dicksonia mentioned by the above author […].
abondent dans les
îles. Dicksonia
ou arbor. ferns pas
trouvé à Madère

H Bodwich [sic] Tr.
p 49
[.] Vermilia bicarina
Galeoloria elongata

de Nouv Holl
trouvé à
Madère Bodw. [sic]
p 63!
Géographie des
plantes de
Madère Bodw [sic]
p 101, 152[,]
| 1v leer (1 Seite) [...]

This genus is, as far as I have been enabled to deter-
mine, confined wholly to Europe: it occurs on the mountains  innerhalb der Zeilein moun-
 über der Zeiledistricts usually at very considerable elevations. There are
only four species; those which were known to Linné were
confounded by him with Jungermannia.


I consider that there are only four species of this genus
two of which at least are very widely distributed: Sph.
occurs in all the marshes of  über der Zeilethroughout all Europe. I possess
it also from North america, where I believe it is very wide-
ly dist
 innerhalb der Zeileas abundant as in Europe: Michaux has called it
. It is described by Bridel from the straits of
under the name of S. magellanicum. In the
Isles of Bourbon, France, and New Holland, (and I believe
also in East India) it has also been found. Sphagnum
seems nearly as widely distributed, but I
do not recollect of having observed S. squarrosum, or S. cus-
as occuring out of Europe. Some botanists,
and I think with justice, consider that there is only one
species of this genus.


This genus may be considered as nearly European, & the
species are nearly confinded, as far as has been hitherto observed
to the middle districts of Europe. To the north the species become
few, and finally disappear in the Arctic circle: About the  über der Zeilemiddle & South
of England, Germany, & France, they are found in considerable
numbers, but, whether through the negligence of botanists I
know not, but they are scarcely at all found farther south.
A few of the European species have been found in North a-
in Pensylvania [sic], among these are Ph. subulatum, rectum
[Phascum] crispum, [Phascum] patens, [Phascum] cuspidatum, über der Zeile [Phascum] crassinervium, and perhaps a few others: I consider
Ph. stenophyllum of Voit to be only a variety of;
of these Ph. subu-
has I believe also been found in New Holland. Ph. co-
and Ph. flexuosum are perhaps the only two confined exclu-
sively to N. America (Pensylvania [sic]). Ph. alternifolium occurs
in Great Britain, in Germany, and, if I mistake not at the
Cape of Good Hope and (if Bridel’s Pleuridium be, as I suppose, the | 2v2 same plant), also in the Isle of France. Phascum nervosum and [Phascum] splachnoi-
have been found, & are peculiar to the Cape of Good Hope.

Thus it may be said that this genus is confined entirely to tem-
perate regions
: moreover it is seldom (never?) found at any
great elevation, seldom at more than 6 or 8 hundred feet  innerhalb der Zeile Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 100 Toise entsprechen 194,84 m100 or  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 150 Toise entsprechen 292,26 m
150 hexapod.
– all occur on the ground.


This which consists of only one species differs from the last
genus, & is intermediate between it & the following in all
its characters: It has the general appearance of the last, but
approaches more closely the characters of the following: it
occurs at a considerable elevation on the mountains of the Vosges.


Of the two species, the one, V. nivalis occurs at a great
altitude on the Carinthian mountains, at the limits of perpe-
tual snow „in stercore vaccino“. The other was  über der Zeilefirst discovered in
Melville Island, but has since been found on the coasts of
Hudsons bay, &  über der Zeileat the mouth of the coppermine river.


This numerous genus, consisting of upwards of 30 species,
is very widely distributed: One section  über der Zeile(3 species) is found entirely
at the cape, and has been constituted a separate genus by
both Brown, and Schwägrichen under the name of Glypho-
. Perhaps a Bartramia which has been found both  über der Zeile
 am linken Rand in Africa, &  über den ursprünglichen Text geschriebenmight be added. Of the other  über der Zeileor real Gymnostoma, there
are two sections, of which the one is chiefly alpine, the other
is not confined to any particular situation. Of the first
of these, nearly all are European: one is however  über der Zeilebelongs to arctic america,
and two  über der Zeileof the others to Nepal [...] G. xanthocarpon and G.
Nob. to Nepal[,]  über der Zeileone of the European species (G. aestivum) was found by Schmidt on Teneriffe, all grow on rock, with the excep-
tion of G. viridissimum, a British species, which is more com-
monly found on the southern exposure of trees – Of the
other section there are about 15 or 16 found in Europe. Of these
one[,]  über der ZeileG. Griffithianum, is peculiar to the mountains of Wales, England, & Scotland,
the others are chiefly found in the low countries. G. fasciculare
has been found through the whole world: it may be traced
in Hindostan under the name of G. Rottleri, and perhaps
in Japan under that of G. japonicum; G. pyriforme is found
as commonly in the United States as in Europe, & I have obser-
| 4r3ved it in Mr. Burchell’s herbarium from the Cape of Good Hope.
G. truncatulum is diffused widely through Europe and Asia.
I do not recollect of  über der Zeilethink that there is any species peculiar to North america.
But in South america we have G. julaceum (Quito. alt.
 Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 2.300 Toise entsprechen 4,48 km2300 hexap.)– G. Bonplandii (New Granada alt.  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 1.300 Toise entsprechen 2,53 km1300 hexap),
 über der ZeileG. jamesoni (Rio janeiro), and another species from Mendoza (Chili). – One species has
been found  über der Zeileon Mount atlas in africa, another in Madeira – and another, in Nepal  innerhalb der ZeileG. in-
volutum in Nepal which also occurs in Java under the
name of G. javanicum. Upon the whole this genus
may be considered as belonging to the temperate regions.


The only gererally acknowledged plant of this genus is
S. pennata is in  über den ursprünglichen Text geschrieben& has hitherto been found only in the middle
of Europe, as Germany & the South of England. A plant
however which perhaps belongs to the genus, the Drepano-
phyllum fulvum
of Richard & Hooker, but very little
understood, has been found by Richard in the woods
of Cayenne, Isle de Bourbon, & Hispaniola.


A. pulvinatum, [Anictangium] subsessile, and [Anictangium] caespititium [sic], are
peculiar to the middle of Europe, & may be considered
as subalpine species. A. ciliatum occurs every where  über der Zeilein the temperate regions.
In Europe it is extremely common: in North america
particularly in the United states it is equally so, though
of a darker green colour, and has been by some erroneously
thought distinct under the name of Hedwigia integrifolia
& Anictangium filiforme: Brown found it in New-
, & I have  innerhalb der Zeileit is plentiful in Nepal. A. torquatum
is peculiar to South america (Banks of the Amazons in New
– and in Brazil) – A. repens has only  über der Zeilebeen found on the
West coast of New Holland.


One species is confined to  über der ZeileSouth of Europe, H. aquatica; the only other
two species were brought by M. M. Humboldt and Bonpland[,]
of these H. secunda has only hitherto been found in Mexi-
, near Tolucca at an alt. of  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 1.300 Toise entsprechen 2,53 km1300 hexap. the other
Hed. Humboldtii, found on Quindíu at an alt. of 1.600, has
been also found at no great distance from the Cape
of G. Hope
; and if (as I suspect) Hypnum nigrocaule [sic]
and | 4v4 H. taxiforme be the same as this, I may add to these
localities the isle of Gaudeloupe, & the South sea islands.

Diphyscium & Buxbaumia.

Both these genera are common
to  über der Zeilethe middle of Europe & North america. They are  innerhalb der Zeileusually occur in
Subalpine districts, i. e. about  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 100 Toise entsprechen 194,84 m100, or  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 150 Toise entsprechen 292,26 m150 hexap. above the


All the species may be considered as more or
less alpine. They usually are most numerous in the
middle and northern parts of Europe and N. america.
S. ampullaceum über der Zeile, [Splachnum] sphaericum, & [Splachnum] tenue are usually met with south of the arctic
circle & are probably confinded to Europe. S. angustatum
is more common both  innerhalb der Zeilein Europe towards the arctic circle
but soon again disappears, it occurs in the Un über der Zeilenorthern parts of the United
. S. vasculosum has a wide range: it occurs in
both continents, even to Melville island. Sp. urceolatum
is I believe wholly European, and is most frequent in
. S. mnioides is common in the mountains of Europe,
and if S. arcticum, [Splachnum] propinquum, & [Splachnum] exsertum  über der Zeileof Brown be the same,
it also occurs in the arctic regions of N. america: S. worm-
has been  innerhalb der Zeilewas first found in Greenland, but has
since been found, growing to a size 10, or 12 times greater
in all the  innerhalb der Zeilearctic america that the several English expedi-
tions have reached to: S. adamsonianum has been
found in Kamtschatka, & arctic america (under the name of
S. paradoxum Brown): S. luteum and [Splachnum] rubrum are confound
within the arctic circle of Europe, but the former occurs
also within the same latitudes in  über der ZeileNorth America. Lastly
Sp. longicollum, if really different from S. tenue, has only
been found on the North West Coast of N. america. S.
, at the Straights [sic] of Magellan, & S. octo-
in New Holland.


This  innerhalb der ZeileD. splachnoides, [Dissodon] Hornschuchii, and [Dissodon] Froelichianum
are European, and are found at very great elevations
in the Middle and Northern parts. D. scabrisetum (Splachnum
. Humb.) has been only procured by  über der ZeileMM Humb. & Bonpland
at  innerhalb der Zeilein S. america (Jaén de Bracamoros. alt.  Toise: Längemaß (Frankreich), Humboldt verwendet auch die griechische Bezeichnung 'hexapus' (6 Fuß), 1.100 Toise entsprechen 2,14 km1100 hexap.)

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has only been found in the middle of Europe, at very great


pellucida is found in Europe & north america  innerhalb der Zeile the united
, at über der Zeile no great  über der Zeilesmall elevations. There are other three species
but these are confined wholly to the middle parts of Europe.


Common in the West India islands,  über der Zeileas Jamaica, S.t Vincents &c, in Africa
as at Ouare, in Cayenne,  über der ZeileBasil [sic], isles de Bourbon, & Isle de
[,]  über der ZeileMadagascar, Nepal and other parts in the East indies.


First found in the isle de Bourbon, but now in the
the [sic] greatest profusion in Nepal.


Not one species is European: Indeed it may be
called a tropical genus. C. lonchophyllum is found
in Cayenne, Brazil &c. C. Palisoti at Ouare(?) in africa,
in the isles of Granada, S.t Thomas, S.t Vincents;  über der ZeileBrazil, Nepal, Prince
of Wales Island
, and the Moluccas (for I consider C. moluccen-
as the same species). C afzelii, if different from the
last, is found in Africa.
C. Berterii is found in Hispaniola,
C. Swartzii (Eucalypta parasitica Schw.  innerhalb der ZeileSw. ) in the West
C. Gardneri, & C. Taylori in Nepal – Three or
four other species are found in the isle of S.t Vincent,
& one or two more in the Moluccas. – All of them
seem to grow on trees.


Zygo conoideum is dispersed throughout Europe.
Z. menziesii in New Zealand, New Holland, &c. and
Z. obtusifolium in Nepal. All I believe on the trunks
of trees.


This genus is too extensive to examine the species
separately: it is sufficent to say that the  innerhalb der Zeileit is very
generally distributed. The species occurring in Europe &
N. america have usually a very different appearence
from those to the South, so much so as to induce
some muscologists to retain the former only in this
genus; & they have accordingly constituted two new
genera for the remainder. But some species as O. diapha-
is found not only in Europe, but at Mendoça (in Chili)[,] | 5v6others from the tropics, as O. plicatum, of  innerhalb der Zeilethere are  über der Zeileonly about
10 or 12 peculiar to Europe, about 4  über der Zeile4 or 5 to North america
(betwixt the united states & the arctic regions), at least
5 or 6 common to Europe & North america, one to Europe
& South america, and the remainder[,]  über der Zeileabout 40 in number[,] seemed pretty much
confined to their respective countries, they are about  innerhalb der Zeile
which may be said to be
chiefly tropical; a few only
as Otaheita, Nepal, New Zealand, Van Diemens-land,
Cape of Good Hope being out of that range, & and  innerhalb der Zeilenot
many species are hitherto discovered in these.


Only one species which is confined to the sea coasts
of Great Britain  innerhalb der ZeileEngland & Ireland.


Of this genus, containing about  über der Zeile27 or 28 species, nearly 20 are
confined to Europe, scarcely more than two to North america
(the united states), one, G. apocarpa with its varieties  über der Zeile& perhaps G. maritima seems
common to both. G. fontinaloides,  über der Zeile[Grimmia] longisotris, and [Grimmia] fuscolutea, belongs to S. america;
and G. campestris to the Cape of Good hope: The European species
are principally alpine, but some are found  innerhalb der Zeileas G. maritima are
found at the level of the sea, others as G. apacarpa occur in all
situations,  über der Zeilewhich from the slight variations that in consequence takes [sic]
place on the appearance of the plant, has received six or eight
different names. It is singular that G. pulvinata, β. [Grimmia] africana, brought
by Thunberg from the Cape of Good hope, & which perhaps with
justice should be held as a distinct species, or perhaps the  innerhalb der Zeilemore
the same with G. fuscolutea from  über der ZeileS. America, has been
said to have been found in Swisserland. As however I have
not yet seen either, I cannot give my opinion decidedly.
Of the South american ones G. fontinaloides is analogous to our
European G. apocarpa var. rivularisG. longirostris to the European
G. ovata – and lastly G. fuscolutea to the G. pulvinata. Of the
South african species, G. campestris resembles G. leucophaea so
closely as with difficulty to be separated, and G. africana, supposing
it distinct, is very closely allied to G. pulvinata. Thus an
opinion that there are only three species of this genus would gain
some confirmation, & that these species were distributed all over
the globe: the three species would be 1. with immersed setae, 2. with
exserted straight setae, & 3. with excerted incurved setae.

| 6rTrichostomum.

Of the Genuine Trichostoma, the greater part are European
and are most plentiful in the mountainous, or subalpine dis-
stricts: a few are found in North america, but there are none pe-
culiar to it, all of them likewise occurring in Europe: thus  über der ZeileFor T. Cana-
is only a variety of  innerhalb der Zeileidentical with T. canescens. & T. obtusi-
is noways different from T. aciculare.  am linken RandT. lanugi-
found every
where – in
Chili, Mexico,
Of the true Tri-
one or two species occur in Nepal. There is also
a section of spurious ones (with long vaginating perichaetia that
when better understood may be probably joined to a different
genus), T. perichaetiale, & [Trichostomum] cylindricum both in Hookers Musci Exotici

that come the one from  leer (1 Wort) [...] & the other from  leer (1 Wort) [...] . Anmerkung des Autors (am unteren Rand)One species T. polyphyllum seems very widely distributed; it has been found
in South America by M M. Humboldt & Bonpland, at at the cape of
Good Hope
by Mr. Burchell.


this is entirely a European genus.


As far as I recollect the whole are European, there are only
four species, they are all alpine except the E. vulgaris.


I do not know that this genus occurs in South america, but
in Europe, North America,  über der ZeileWest Indies, Cape of Good Hope, Madagascar, the Moluccas,
& various of the South Sea Islands, it has bee found. Nearly
all however are European: and even when the  über der Zeilea species is not Euro
, there is usually some  innerhalb der Zeileone in Europe to which it bears an
affinity. Thus W. Radians from the South seas, & W. bergiana from

the cape are.
Two or three species as W. controversa and W. verti-
are common to Europe & North America[.]  über der ZeileThe last has I understand been also found in the Canary Isles. W. curvirostra
extends from the West of Europe to Asia minor. Some of the
species are alpine, but many a few  innerhalb der Zeileothers are by no means so.


I consider that there is but one species of this genus: two of the
varieties occur in Europe, a third in the united states, and the
fourth in the island of Tristan d’Acunha, but there are intermediate
varieties from the same places. The European species occur as far South
as the Tyrolese Alps, & extend to Seeland.


Of the f  innerhalb der Zeileone section (Fissidens Hedw.), D. bryoides is found every
where. In Europe one finds it extremely common, as well as its va-
rieties. I perhaps  über der Zeilehave seen it from N. america (united States), from S. america
(Rio janeeroMendoça &c), West india Islands, the Cape, East
, & various of the South Sea islands, nor can I find dif-
| 6v8ferences sufficient to characterise a variety: it was the sight of
this very plant in the sandy deserts of Africa, that inspired the
traveller Mungo Park, when fatigued & overpowered with thirst as
he mentions in his travels, to push forward & endeavour to
procure some refreshment. – Another species of this section
D. taxifolium has been traced in Nepal. and If Dicranum
(Fissidens) Semicompletum, and Skitophyllum fontanum, or Fontinalis juliana
be, as I suppose, identical it has been found both in Europe
& in the  innerhalb der Zeilein Patagonia , isle of Providence, & perhaps the isles
of Bourbon
. – Of another tribe of Dicrana, those with no
nerves to the leaf, & resembling Sphagnum in texture, one
D. glaucum has been met with in nearly all parts of the
world: it occurs however more rarely within the tropics and
D. megalophyllum (Sphagnum javense of Brid.) takes its place.
In new Holland, a third species of this tribe appears to have been
sent to Dillenius, but perhaps his figure is only a bad represen-
tation of  über der Zeilea state of D. glaucum which does occur there. – The
remainder of the Dicrana are nearly 40 in number, of which
scarcely more than 13 are confined to Europe, not above one or
two to North america; South america posseses the D. vagina-
,  über der Zeile[Dicranum] densum, and [Dicranum] longisetum, and a few also are peculiar to Nepal.
But about 11 or 12, are common both to Europe & North america,
two or three to Europe & Nepal, about as many to Europe
and New Holland; Some species, which are met with in
Jamaica & the neighbouring islands,  über der Zeileas D. calycinum, occur also [...] in
the isles of Bourbon. D. crispum (an European species) is said
by Thumbergto grow at the cape, but I suspect his plant
to be D. flexifolium, a species peculiar to that country. The most
widely diffused species of the whole genus is D. scoparium, which
has been found in almost every country in the world. And another
species D. Harkii is I suspect nearly as common, though at
present retaining different names.


This genus may be reckoned alpine, but with the excep-
tion of Th. flexuosum, which occurs also  über der Zeilemost commonly in Europe, may be
considered belonging to the tropics. – Th. concolor (Dicranum
Hook.) from  über der Zeileis only found [in] New Granada occurs also in the Isle
of Bourbon and, a small variety,  über der Zeile? perhaps Th. capillaceum, not described in the Synopsis
to the „Nova Genera &c.“
, seems not uncommon  über der Zeileto be found in St. Helena,
Ile of Bourbon
, & the moluccas. Th. introflexum is perhaps the | 7r9 most widely diffused, as it is found in almost every island within the


Of this genus, the most generally diffused is Did. purpureum: it
is not only common in Europe & North america, but extends to the
Canary isles, & the Cape of Good hope, as far as I recollect it is
also a common species in New Holland. – D. pallidum (Trichostom
Schw.) a plant perhaps nowhere abundant, is neverthe-
less widely diffused. Europe, North America, Jamaica, Patagonia,
New Holland &c all posess it. D. trifarium  über der Zeile& [Didymodon] heteromallus has been found both
in Europe & North america & perhaps a few others.


A considerable number are common both to Europe & North a-
. A variety? of T. inclinata (a Swiss plant) has been at
the cape of good hope. T. membranifolia Hook. first detected
in Teneriffe, has since been observed in the Pyrenées, in Swisserland,
and even by  innerhalb der Zeilein the environs of Paris! – T. muralis, occurs both
in Europe & S. america ( Rio Janeiro  über der Zeileat Mendoça), T. ruralis oc-
curs every where. A few species are peculiar to North ameri-
, as T. caespitosa, [Tortula] humilis, [Tortula] leucostoma; some are peculiar
to Nepal, as T. indica, [Tortula] flavescens, [Tortula] angustifolia; others are
peculiar to New Holland,  über der Zeileothers to the cape, others to the West Indies. T. cirrhata
(Trichostomum barbula Schw.) found in Portugal, occurs also
in Teneriffe, & a larger variety has been sent me from
Rio Janeiro. Anmerkung des Autors (innerhalb der Zeile)–{N. B. T. stellata  innerhalb der Zeileof Jamaica, said by Dickson to grow in Scotland is probably
an error, there is reason to fear that he  über der Zeilehad confused his Scottish &
Jamaica plants together.


There are only two species; the one is confined to the
northern parts of Europe; as Scotland, Lapland &c, the other
to the straights [sic] of Magellan[.]


So many disputes are at present as to what are species &
what are not so, in this genus, that it [is] difficult to say which
are peculiar to Europe & I rather think however that
B. Halleriana, [Bartramia] Ithyphylla, & [Bartramia] arcuata are the only three
that are not found elsewhere. B. pomiformis occurs  innerhalb der Zeile,
[Bartramia] gracilis,
& [Bartramia] fontana, are  über der Zeilealso extremely  über der Zeilecommon in North america. In
which country (the North West Coast), B. menziesii has
only been found. B. longifolia is peculiar to South america
(vide.  Kunth 1822–1825, I, 55.
H. & B. synopsis
), but B. patens , & stricta have [sic] also
been found there: the first of these B. patens  über der ZeileThis was found | 7v10 by  Kunth 1822–1825, I, 55.
M. M. Humbt. & Bonpd.
, it also occurs at the straights [sic] of Ma-
, and in isle of Bourbon? – the other  über der Zeileanother , B. stricta is
 innerhalb der Zeilesaid to be found at the straights [sic] of Magellan, and on  über der Zeilebut is probably regular to the coast of
. Bartramia fontana is found every where:
Europe, N. america, East & West indies, NewHolland, Ota-
, Cape of Good Hope, &c., Bartamia tomentosa
from Jamaica, is very closely allied  über der Zeileto, but must not be
confounded with B. arcuata of Europe.


Some authors begin to suspect that all the species are not
different from each other: but be that as it may, the
common F. hygrometrica of Europe is as common in N. america.
It is found also, (growing with a species F. calvescens, which
is purely tropical,) in South america, as at Rio janeiro,
& Quito (? v.  Kunth 1822–1825, I, 56.
H. & B. synopsis
). – F. flavicans is found in
North & South america, and F. muhlenbergii is common
to the United States & the middle of Europe.


This is entirely an Australasian genus.


Both  über der Zeile All Three species have been only found in Nepal.  innerhalb der Zeile
only in Europe.
Brown mentions that there is ano-
ther from Arctic america[.]


This genus is but little known[,] it has been found
at Port jackson in New Holland.


Both species have been only found in Nepal.


This &  über der Zeilemost of the following genera contain so many species
that I shall here briefly point out a few of the
species that are most widely diffused.

Cinclidium stygium[.]

only one species & confined to  über der Zeilethe north of Europe[.]


There are usually considered to be two European species of
this genus, one of them has been found in the united States.
Schwaegrichen says there  innerhalb der Zeiledescribes another species from
Arctic America, I am not acquainted with it, but I think
the other two only the same  über der Zeileone species.


Two Species are found in the South of Europe, one belongs
to S. america (v.  Kunth 1822–1825, I, 49 (Fabronia Polycarpa).
Humb. Synpos.
), another comes from
the Cape  innerhalb der Zeileisle de Bourbon (? vide.  Hedwig/Schwaegrichen 1816, 339 (Fabronia Persooni).
.), & ano-
ther from New Holland? (v.  Hooker, W. J. 1818–1820, II , Tab. CLX (Fabronia Australis).
Hook. musci Exot.
) – upon the
whole this genus belongs to warm climates.


There are two sections: the flat  innerhalb der Zeiledistichous [-]leaved
ones are all tropical, the others are variously spread.
of about 26  über der Zeile24 species in this section, scarcesly more than  über der Zeileonly
one or
two  über der Zeileor three are confined to Europe, 8 or 9 are confinded
to the united states, P. gracile & perhaps one or two
more are common to both countries.  über der ZeileP. gracile has been also found in the isle de Bourbon P. smithii of
Europe (middle & Southern parts) is found at  über den ursprünglichen Text geschriebenas far as the Cape of
G. Hope
, at über den ursprünglichen Text geschrieben in Brazil (Rio Janeiro) &c. P. julaceum of
N. america is found I believe in Nepal. A few species
are peculiar to S. america, others to Nepal.

| 8v

Neckera.  über der ZeileLeucodon

This genus is  über der Zeilechiefly confined to Europe & north america.
But there are two or three  innerhalb der Zeilea few species, formerly numbered
under this genus, but now made into separate genera, that
are found in the southern hemisphere. Two species also
still retained in Leucodon, but very dissimilar to it in
appearance are also found, the one in Peru ? (v. Leucad. Tomen-
 Kunth 1822–1825, I, 53.
Humbt. & Kunth. Synopsis
), the other in New Holland.
L. canariensis, now an Astradontium is found both in
Teneriffe & the isle de Bourbon.


Like all the other Hypnoid genera this is widely diffused.
N. crispa is found in Europe, North  über der Zeile& South america, Teneriffe, and
probably widely found every where: N. cladorrhizans
is common to Europe & N. america, & is I believe met
with in NepalN. dendroides originally found in the Sand-
wich isles
is  innerhalb der Zeilealso occurs in Nepal. – N. viticulosa is
common to Europe & N. america.


Only one or two  über den ursprünglichen Text geschriebenthree species are found in Europe, & one of these
D. pennata is found also in N. america, and Jamaica[,]  über der ZeileGuiana & Isle de Bourbon, &
probably in several places in the Southern hemisphere[,]
of the other species ( nearly 20  über der Zeile16 or 18 ) D. undulata is found in
Jamaica, South america, and many other nearly tropical
countries, the others are chiefly local.

Hookeria.  über der ZeileSpiridens

Found in the isle de Bourbon, and in Java.


With the exception of two  über der Zeile or three very  innerhalb der Zeile a few species, and there are nearly  über der Zeileabout
35 known, this genus may be said to be tropical.
H. lucens is found however in Europe & N. america; but
we believe no other species has yet been found there[.]
The only species considerably south of H. magellanica
occurs at the straits of Magellan, & H. cristata  über der Zeile& [Hookeria] Tamarisci is  innerhalb der Zeileare only found
in New Zealand. – but the localities of some species are not
precisely known. The most widely diffused species is H. Tamarisci  innerhalb der Zeile
the Hypnum Tamarisci
of Swartz, (but not of Hedwig.)[,] it is found in
Jamaica, S. america, isle de Bourbon, Nepaul &c.


Of this genus it is impossible to give any account: Most
authors at present are in the habit of making the plants from
remote localities distinct if they have a slight difference in
appearance: it is my opinion however in this genus in particular
that soil & climate will make the same species vary so
much that it can scarcely be recognized.

To avoid disputes it may be better to say generally that | 9r13 most of the European species have a counterpart in North america
and the  innerhalb der Zeilea similar reciprocity takes place between the tropical
countries. Thus Neckera  über der ZeileH. dendroides in Europe corresponds to
H.  über der Zeile(Climacium) americanum of the united states: Hypnum abietum to
H. scitum: Hyp. Boscii to  innerhalb der ZeileH. illecebrum to H. Boscii: Hyp. ser-
to H. radicale &c: In the tropics H. gratum seems
generally spread: H. pallidum  über der Zeileof Humboldt corresponds to H. serratum from
the isle de Bourbon: The species most diffused are Hyp. pro-
, but this in the tropics often gives way to H. fuciforme[.]
H. cupressiforme is found every where; – in every country where
there are shady woods: As may be expected the tropical varieties
are more tender, but  innerhalb der Zeileand approach to the Genus Hookeria, but
I cannot separate them. from


F. antipyretica & [Fontinalis] squamosa are common to Europe
& N. America. F. falcata is peculiar to Lapland, and
F. capillacea to Pensylvania [sic].


is peculiar to Nepal.


what I said of Hypnum applies also here: scarcely
two people have agreed what are to be considered species.
But among those found every where P. commune holds
the first rank: From the North to the South arctic circles
 über der Zeilethere is scarcely a country  Unleserliche Stelle (1 Wort) [...] but posesses it. P. juniferinum is
also nearly as common although few species at present
lie  über der Zeileyet hithertho known in the Southern hemisphere, still I suspect
they  innerhalb der Zeilethem abound as much as in the Northern. A few species
as P. convolutum & its allies grow in the tropics.


only found in N. Holland


1. Of nearly 800 species known, about  innerhalb der Zeileabout 200 or upwards
are confined to Europe: about 80 to north america: to
South america about the  innerhalb der Zeileincluding the islands on the
coast of Cayenne, about 80: To E India & Nepal & the  innerhalb der Zeile
To Nepal, East India
, & the adjacent islands about
100 or 120 including a few not yet described: To the Cape
of Good Hope
not above 25 or 30. A few species are very | 9v14 very widely distributed, as Sphagnum latifolium and [Sphagnum] acuti-
. Trichostomum lanuginosum, Dicranum bryoides, [Dicranum] glaucum,
& [Dicranum] soparium [sic], Didymodon purpureum, Tortula ruralis, Barth  innerhalb der Zeile
; Bryum argenteum, & [Bryum] roseum, Hyp-
num cupressiforme
, & Polytrichum commune.

2. of these the species most diffused grow in marshy places or
in shady woods.

3. Mosses gradually diminish in number towards the arctic cir-
cles, and become also fewer towards the tropics, unless in
mountainous or moist climates. In temperate regions they
abound: & they there grow at every altitude fom the level of
the sea to  über der Zeilethe limits of perpetual snow.

4. A. In the arctic circle there are peculiar the genus Cinclidium,
a few Splachna, one Orthotrichum, one Voitia, a Fontinalis,
& one Polytrichum[.]

B. To the Northern or mountainious part of the temperate regions
we have several  über der Zeileof the genus Splachnum, Dissodon, & Tayloria, a Voitia,
Bruchia, & several Polytricha, Grimmia, Trichostoma, Gymnosto-
, & Conostomum.

C. To the middle of Europe we have  über der Zeileconfined some Phasca, one Splach-
, several Orthotricha, Tortulae, Weissiae, Dicrana,
, Barthramiae, Hypna &c: But there is scarce-
ly one entire genus peculiar to this district.

D. To  innerhalb der ZeileOn the United states, we may make the same remark über der Zeile as to genera: über der Zeile But
there are peculiar some  über der Zeilespecies of S[p]hascum, Grimmiae, Weissiae, Pterogonium,
several Hypna, & one  über der Zeileor two of Fontinalis.

E. To the South of Europe  über der Zeile& much of Africa are confined three Fabronia, a Funaria,
a Gymnostomum, & a Bartramia & perhaps a fews others, but
this District has been litte examined.

F. To the west Indies, are confined a few species of the European
genera, as Dicranum, Tortula, Pterogonium, Neckera, Orthotrichum,
& Hookeria:  über der Zeilesome others of The Genus Calymperes calym  innerhalb der Zeileare preculiar .

G. South america. The botany of the central part has been yet
little explored as to mosses: there exists the genera Gymostomum[,]
Polytrichum, Fabronia, Pterogonium, Neckera & several of the
genus Hookeria. The species are , generally speaking, seldom
found elsewhere.

| 10r15

H. Nepal. There are here some Gymostoma, Tortulae, and
species, belonging to nearly all the European genera: two
genera Lyellia & Brachymenium are peculiar to this country,
very few of the species occur out of the country.

K. To new Holland & New Zealand are  innerhalb der Zeilebelong several species belonging
to European genera: but the genera Dawsonia, Leptotheca,
and Leptostonum are peculiar, as well as the greater
proportion of the dendroid tribe of the Hypnoid family.

5. K. The genera most particularly belonging to and spread
in the tropics, are Calymperes, Orthotricha, Thesanomitrion,
Pterogonium, Daltonia, & Hookeria.

6. It must not be concluded that in the tropics there
are fewer species of mosses than in the temperate climates,
because hitherto the botany of these parts has not been so
particularly examined for mosses. The South of Africa, from
what Mr. Burchell informs me is very poor in the
number of species of mosses.

| 10v leer (1 Seite) [...]


Walker-Arnott, George Arnott; Humboldt, Alexander von: B / C – Geographie der Moose, hg. v. Ulrich Päßler unter Mitarbeit von Ingo Schwarz. In: edition humboldt digital, hg. v. Ottmar Ette. Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin. Version 5 vom 11.09.2019. URL: https://edition-humboldt.de/v5/H0000007


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